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What Is Back Pain?
Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public

Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp pain that makes it hard to move. It can start quickly if you fall or lift something too heavy, or it can get worse slowly.

Who Gets Back Pain?

Anyone can have back pain, but some things that increase your risk are:

  • Getting older. Back pain is more common the older you get. You may first have back pain when you are 30 to 40 years old.
  • Poor physical fitness. Back pain is more common in people who are not fit.
  • Being overweight. A diet high in calories and fat can make you gain weight. Too much weight can stress the back and cause pain.
  • Inherited diseases or conditions. Some kinds of back pain, such as disc disease, can be inherited.
  • Other diseases. Some types of arthritis and cancer can cause back pain.
  • Your job. If you have to lift, push, or pull while twisting your spine, you may get back pain. If you work at a desk all day and do not sit up straight, you may also get back pain.
  • Smoking. Your body may not be able to get enough nutrients to the discs in your back if you smoke. Smoker's cough may also cause back pain. People who smoke are slow to heal, so back pain may last longer.

Another factor is race. For example, black women are two to three times more likely than white women to have part of the lower spine slip out of place.

What Are the Causes of Back Pain?
Can Back Pain Be Prevented?
When Should I See a Doctor for Pain?
How Is Back Pain Diagnosed?
What Is the Difference Between Acute and Chronic Pain?
How Is Back Pain Treated?
What Kind of Research Is Being Done?

What Are the Causes of Back Pain?

There are many causes of back pain. Mechanical problems with the back itself can cause pain. Examples are:

  • Disc breakdown
  • Spasms
  • Tense muscles
  • Ruptured discs

Injuries from sprains, fractures, accidents, and falls can result in back pain.

Back pain can also occur with some conditions and diseases, such as:

  • Scoliosis
  • Spondylolisthesis
  • Arthritis
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Pregnancy
  • Kidney stones
  • Infections
  • Endometriosis
  • Fibromyalgia

Other possible causes of back pain are infections, tumors, or stress.

Can Back Pain Be Prevented?

The best things you can do to prevent back pain are:

  • Exercise often and keep your back muscles strong.
  • Maintain a healthy weight or lose weight if you weigh too much. To have strong bones, you need to get enough calcium and vitamin D every day.
  • Try to stand up straight and avoid heavy lifting when you can. If you do lift something heavy, bend your legs and keep your back straight.

When Should I See a Doctor for Pain?

You should see a doctor if you have:

  • Numbness or tingling
  • Severe pain that does not improve with rest
  • Pain after a fall or an injury
  • Pain plus any of these problems:

    • Trouble urinating
    • Weakness
    • Numbness in your legs
    • Fever
    • Weight loss when not on a diet.

How Is Back Pain Diagnosed?

To diagnose back pain, your doctor will take your medical history and do a physical exam. Your doctor may order other tests, such as:

  • X rays
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Blood tests.

Medical tests may not show the cause of your back pain. Many times, the cause of back pain is never known. Back pain can get better even if you do not know the cause.

What Is the Difference Between Acute and Chronic Pain?

Acute pain starts quickly and lasts less than 6 weeks. It is the most common type of back pain. Acute pain may be caused by things like falling, being tackled in football, or lifting something heavy. Chronic pain lasts for more than 3 months and is much less common than acute pain.

How Is Back Pain Treated?

Treatment for back pain depends on what kind of pain you have. Acute back pain usually gets better without any treatment, but you may want to take acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen to help ease the pain. Exercise and surgery are not usually used to treat acute back pain.

Following are some types of treatments for chronic back pain.

Hot or Cold Packs (or Both)

Hot or cold packs can soothe sore, stiff backs. Heat reduces muscle spasms and pain. Cold helps reduce swelling and numbs deep pain. Using hot or cold packs may relieve pain, but this treatment does not fix the cause of chronic back pain.

Exercise

Proper exercise can help ease chronic pain but should not be used for acute back pain. Your doctor or physical therapist can tell you the best types of exercise to do.

Medications

The following are the main types of medications used for back pain:

  • Analgesic medications are over-the-counter drugs such as acetaminophen and aspirin or prescription pain medications.
  • Topical analgesics are creams, ointments, and salves rubbed onto the skin over the site of pain.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are drugs that reduce both pain and swelling. NSAIDs include over-the-counter drugs such as ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen sodium. Your doctor may prescribe stronger NSAIDs.
  • Muscle relaxants and some antidepressants have also been prescribed for chronic back pain, but it is not yet known if they work for back pain.

Behavior Changes

You can learn to lift, push, and pull with less stress on your back. Changing how you exercise, relax, and sleep can help lessen back pain. Eating a healthy diet and not smoking also help.

Injections

Your doctor may suggest steroid or numbing shots to lessen your pain.

Complementary and Alternative Medical Treatments

When back pain becomes chronic or when other treatments do not relieve it, some people try complementary and alternative treatments. The most common of these treatments are:

  • Manipulation. Professionals use their hands to adjust or massage the spine or nearby tissues.
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). A small box over the painful area sends mild electrical pulses to nerves. Studies have shown that TENS treatments are not always effective for reducing pain.
  • Acupuncture. This Chinese practice uses thin needles to relieve pain and restore health. Acupunture may be effective when used as a part of a comprehensive treatment plan for low back pain.
  • Acupressure. A therapist applies pressure to certain places in the body to relieve pain. Acupressure has not been well studied for back pain.

Surgery

Most people with chronic back pain do not need surgery. It is usually used for chronic back pain if other treatments do not work. You may need surgery if you have:

  • Herniated disc. When one or more of the discs that cushion the bones of the spine are damaged, the jelly-like center of the disc leaks, causing pain.
  • Spinal stenosis. This condition causes the spinal canal to become narrow.
  • Spondylolisthesis. This occurs when one or more bones of the spine slip out of place.
  • Vertebral fractures. A fracture can be caused by a blow to the spine or by crumbling of the bone due to osteoporosis.
  • Degenerative disc disease. As people age, some have discs that break down and cause severe pain.

Rarely, when back pain is caused by a tumor, an infection, or a nerve root problem called cauda equina syndrome, surgery is needed right away to ease the pain and prevent more problems.

What Kind of Research Is Being Done?

Back pain researchers are studying:

  • Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for back pain
  • The best treatments for low back pain
  • How well lumbar fusion surgery works for disc pain
  • How often there are problems after lumbar fusion surgery
  • Loss of movement and low back pain
  • Ways for people with acute low back pain to feel better
  • The role of nerves in low back pain
  • Ways to use the Internet to teach people about back pain.

 

 

Article courtesy of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke